Cloud storage for encrypted backups recommendations
Hi! I'm looking for a good cloud storage provider for my backups. I will encrypt them locally and rclone them, so integration is important. I've been looking through reddit, and every single provider has something behind their ears (closes accounts, scans files, sketchy, blah blah blah), so I'm having a bit of an analysis paralysis. Free tier would be ideal. I don't need a lot of space, just a few GBs. Thanks :)

After I’m Gone Backup Solution
Recently I have decided that the backup solution I have been using is far too complex for my family to figure out when I die. I began writing documentation on how they can access photos, videos, documents and so on. In that process I thought, I gotta make this simple. I’m thinking of just having two 10TB drives in RAID 1 on my desktop that get backed up to Backblaze via restic. Backblaze and similar cloud storage providers can send you a copy of your data for recovery. I think I can sufficiently document this process. Has anyone else come up with a similar process?

Downsides of self hosting fediverse from homelab / locally?
I am wanting to self host a fediverse instance. I don't hope to make it big. Hoping for 200 users at most, and I won't advertise it heavily so it'll probably be a while before it gets there. Is it a bad idea to host something like this on local hardware at home? I have a lot of local-only self hosted services, and I wouldn't want those to be compromised. But my biggest fear is overloading my network. I already don't get the fastest signal in some parts of my house, and I am worried the extra traffic might put more pressure on the network. What are your thoughts on hosting local? Should I just avoid the headache and host on public instance?

What modern solutions are there similar to dyndns?
Hi, started self hosting quite a few things and would like a domain to use for when I'm out and about instead of having to remember what my IP is currently. What are the newest providers of services that can accomplish this?

Replacing Cloudflare Tunnels with Tailscale?
Someone here brought up that they were able to replace Cloudflare Tunnels with Tailscale - I can't seem to find the post, as it was a comment and deeply buried in a thread I've since forgotten the title of. :) Can anyone explain the process for doing this? I assume it's through the use of their Funnel? I have three primary services I require to be accessible through Authentik (that's one of them) via my domain name. **EDIT** To answer the question of why I want to leave Cloudflare Tunnels - is basically that I have several services behind it (I forgot one so make that 4 I wish to have exposed). Two password managers, Psono for my special needs daughter which finds it easier than Bitwarden and Vaultwarden for myself and my work logins. So, I can't just set up a VPN or Tailscale at work to connect my work passwords to. :) I also have Authentik and Home Assistant tunneled at present. That doesn't explain the reason why though so let me start here: My step-daughter is learning video production and editing, we don't want to share her videos on Youtube or other sites, but would like to keep it more local to home. With that said, Cloudflare may not notice it at first, bit it's against their TOS to stream videos, not to mention their just over 100mb cap for file xfers which leads me to the next reason. Early in May of this year, we were in an auto accident, and we are frequently sending forms, accident photos and paperwork etc to the Attorneys, I want to have control of the ownership of the files and would prefer not to email them, but link them to my server, frequently, those files even zipped can be over 100mb. I do have a private DDNS provider I have my domain CNAME pointed to so it resolves to the home IP that way, so the ultimate plan is to untie my site from Cloudflare's DNS to a offload to a VPS or two for (NS1 and NS2) With a recent issue with Oracle Cloud, I'm not motivated to use them for this basic purpose. And just a small part of me is starting to get tin hat against the idea that Cloudflare can decrypt the data before it hits my site before it encrypts it. Just just isn't sitting well with me at the moment. I can't verify this data yet, but I like to play it safe than sorry. **EDIT 2** So, I ran a funnel test and yes it works, but still have to use the like others said, so at best, I can figure this to be a good backup service. I can't forward a CNAME to my TS DNS. I checked /r/tailscale (Duckduckgo sent me there), and about a month ago, someone asked if you could use your own domain, the answer was "not yet" but there seems to be some interest. What I found pretty fascinating is the mobile app does work quite well on Android and is so far so good, I can at least feel better knowing that the phones are on WG full time now through Tailscale. I had issues with the official WG client and another one staying on with our phones full time, so this so far has been a good improvement.

BUG: OpenZFS data corruption
Unless you are missed the news. Bug found in OpenZFS causing data corruption, FreeBSD, Linux and illumos are all affected. [Good description of the bug]( [Some good news from bug tracker on OpenZFS]( > OpenZFS 2.2.2 and 2.1.14 released with fix in place. If you don't get your > OpenZFS direct from here, point your vendor at it. Patch your systems!!

S3 Object Storage with Embedded Pict-rs install?
I built my instance from source: It shows very few options for pict-rs in the UI config. I was wondering if I'm still able to apply object storage and/or conduct a migration? Or, am I going to need to install pict-rs from source as well? If I am able to use object storage with the embedded install, what settings would I need to add to the `lemmy.hjson` file? Thank you!

Jellyfin Volume Normalization
I've poked around online and it seems like Jellyfin had (music) volume normalization added to it sometime recently. However, I'm struggling to *verify* that it's enabled/working. Is it something I have to enable or is it on by default? If it's on shouldn't I be able to see something like a LUFS or ReplyGain value in each song's metadata? UPDATE: I'm not familiar with Jellyfin's git strategy, but it seems like even though the audio normalization has made it into the `master` branch it has NOT made it into the `10.8.z` release tag/branch. I determined this by looking for the changes in `Emby.Server.Implementations/Data/SqliteItemRepository.cs` from the normalization PR in the current version of the file in `10.8.z` and they were not present.

Best VPS for gramps
Hello selfhosters, I need recommendation for cheap VPS that I will use to host [gramps]( only. Gramps is selfhosted app for building family tree. I tested gramps in docker container on my home server and its awesome, check it out. My home server is not open to public (accessing it using wireguard only) and I would like to give access to some family members (3-4) for gramps. I thought its best to pay for cheap VPS and run gramps only to avoid any security issues on my home network. I believe performance and storage requirements fit in any cheapest model, but not sure which VPS is the easiest to setup. I have my own domain from porkbun, but I have never set SSL certs properly before and I have never used VPS. I see this as a great opportunity to learn, but also to make some family members happy <3 I'm eying and it says in description "1 IPv4", but then it offers "Add'l Ipv4 Addresses" for 9$. I'm bit lost here and I'm not even sure do I need IPv4 address. Maybe I can run duckdns or ddclient to avoid additional cost? How is your experience with servercheap? Is there anything better for similar price? Also, any tips for building server like that are appreciated. I was thinking Debian 11 + gramps in docker container since I'm familiar with that setup. Cheers

I’ve tried ownCloud.
Hey there! I just wanted to share a bit about my experience as a hobbyist and self-hosting enthusiast. While I may not be the most educated on the topic, I've been able to self-host my favorite services to avoid relying on big companies like Google and Amazon. A few years ago, I started my self-hosting journey with Nextcloud, and it completely blew my mind. Finally, I didn't have to rely on Google Drive anymore! However, I quickly realized that using a Raspberry Pi made things a bit sluggish. I tried upgrading to a more powerful machine. Still slow. I then tried with an i5-4460, but it was still slow and buggy. I even tried an i3-10100, and it was still a bit of a pain to use. It seems like many others feel the same frustration, so I know I'm not alone. I often wonder how some other people claim they have no issues with Nextcloud, but hey, good for them! Because of the tinkering it seems to need, I feel like I don't have enough time and knowledge to make Nextcloud work as smoothly as I'd like, which defeats the purpose of self-hosting it. That's why I've been exploring other options. I gave Seafile a shot, but couldn't figure out how to solve a "CSRF verification failed" error. Projectsend and Xbackbone are great, but they don't quite match what I'm looking for. I also tried Cloudreve, but I wasn't a fan of its sorting philosophy. I did find Picoshare, which I stuck with, but for a totally different purpose. Then, I tried ownCloud for the first time. Wow, it was fast! Uploading an 8GB folder took just 3 minutes compared to the 25 minutes it took with Nextcloud. Plus, everything was lightning quick on the same machine. I really loved using it. Unfortunately, there's currently a [vulnerability affecting it](, which led me to uninstall it. I also gave OCIS a try, and it felt even faster. The interface was smooth and fluid, it was truly impressive. However, with the recent news of it [becoming part of Kiteworks](, I'm a bit unsure about its future. I can't help but wonder why so many people have been raving about Nextcloud all these years when ownCloud performs so well right out of the box. I'd love to hear about your experience and the services you use. Share your thoughts!

Jellyfin stuttering
Hi, I have recently set up a Jellyfin server running on a Beelink S12 pro in docker (with a few other containers running), and I am having a few problems with stuttering video. I get little micro-stutters every few seconds regardless of whether it is direct play or transcoding and regardless of what client I use (librelec with Jellyfin plugin), android phone, or firefox on a windows laptop), and I am struggling to narrow down the cause of it. Any ideas of where I should look first? The server utilisation seems low, I have tried a wired and wifi connection, I have tried 720, 1080, and 2160 resolution videos, with and without transcoding. Any help would be greatly appreciated.

Do you run a private CA? Could you tell me about your certificate setup if you do?
Hi, I was looking at private CAs since I don't want to pay for a domain to use in my homelab. What is everyone using for their private CA? I've been looking at plain OpenSSL with some automation scripts but would like more ideas. Also, if you have multiple reverse-proxy instances, how do you distribute domain-specific signed certificates to them? I'm not planning to use a wildcard, and would like to rotate certificates often. Thanks! --- Edit: thank you for everyone who commented! I would like to say that I recognise the technical difficulty in getting such a setup working compared to a simple certbot setup to Let's Encrypt, but it's a personal choice that I have made.

I haven't seen this posted yet here, but anybody self-hosting OwnCloud in a containerized environment may be exposing sensitive environment variables to the public internet. There may be other implications as well.

Ethical cloud (VPS) provider recommendation
Does such a thing exist? A coop cloud provider? A unonized cloud provider? An ethical cloud provider? A good guy cloud provider?

Only able to see subscribed communities
Hello! A new self-hoster of lemmy instance. I've confirmed fedi is working and able to return json result for my server. However, I am only able to find users and/or communities if I manually search for them. Is there some sort of propagation or sync that needs to occur in order for searched queries to correctly populate data from the fediverse? Cheers

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Questions around disk space and parity in unraid
So I recently found out that I have sh*t my leg... I was about to set up unraid but just before dipping my toes I was told that the parity drive needs to be the same or larger in size, really wish I had done more thorough reseach before recently buying that 10TB HDD hehe... My planned setup was; 250 GB - SSD (Cache) 1 TB - HDD (Parity) 2 TB - HDD (Pool) 10 TB - HDD (Pool) So what are my option now that I have messed that up, what would you recommend? To go without parity or is there another way? Any help is appriciated, I am still quite new to selfhosting/linux :) **UPDATE**; I can trade the 10TB for two 4TB disks + the extra. Should I?

Are PrimeBuy and trusted for server parts (and any ATX PSUs with the fan at the back)?
Hi everyone. Basically the question; has anyone bought server parts off of PrimeBuy and Are they trustworthy? I was looking for the Seasonic ES2, which has a fan at the back, to be used in a server, but the only places I could find it are at these two websites. They look fine to me but I thought I'd take the community's opinion on it (would be great if Seasonic sold it themselves but I don't think that's the case). Thanks!
Are PrimeBuy and trusted for server parts (and any ATX PSUs with the fan at the back)?

pfsense: Who needs AES-NI?
I'm thinking about building a box for pfsense. Looking at hardware options and I see a pretty significant difference in price when comparing hardware with and without AES-NI. I don't necessarily think I'll need AES. The way I understand it, AES is for using VPN that is somehow running on the router??? I mean, my wife and I both use VPNs on our work computers so we can reach our work networks, but that isn't using any encryption features on my router, is it?? Or am I not understanding?

SSD only NAS/media server?
Hello! I am getting the parts together for a tower server build. I plan on running Jellyfin, maybe dive into arrs and nextcloud for 2 users total, wireguard only for external access as it's not the main focus for now. Situation: if I have access to refurb/used 4TB enterprise HDDs at the same price as 1.9ish TB enterprise SSDs. I'd take lower capacity as it is not that big of a concern for me rn. I want to have somewhat redundant storage of my documents, photos, but otherwise it's not gonna be a giant media vault overflowing with movies. Question: In terms of noise, shipping concerns and longevity, would you go with SSDs instead of HDDs? Is it lower maintenance? I can of course buy spinners later if I find flash only to be restricting in any way, and add to the rig as needed. Speed would not be an issue in any case. This is for TrueNAS scale, so zfs. I am planning to buy 3-4 disks now, and add more if needed in 6 months time or later. I am eager to hear others opininons on this. Thanks!

Access home server from anywhere
Hi, I know this topic has been talked about 70 thousand times but I’m still not sure. I have home server on an intel NUC behind the ISP router. On it I have the standard arr apps, jellyfin, pi-hole etc etc. I would like to access them through a domain rather than an IP. So I set them up in docker, behind traefik, behind authelia and behind cloudflare. I am the only one that uses it. Now, I’m worried about the security of it all. I’ve been searching here and there and I’ve read about cf tunnels, wireguard server, vps, vlan, OPNsense etc etc. I still don’t know what would be the most secure. Should I just stay with what I have? EDIT: I'm not behind CGNAT

Simplest For End User Wiki/Knowlege Repo for the end user
I am trying to set up a repository of knowledge for my job. Was thinking a wiki, but I need something that I can make as simple as possible for the end user, as some of them are not familiar with markdown or html. Is there a self hosted option that is dumb easy simple to navigate and edit for the end user?

recommendations for 2.5 gig 48 port managed switch
Anybody see a 48 port managed 2.5 Gig ethernet switch for reasonable pricing yet? it seems like these are still either thousands of dollars or sold for chinese market without appropriate certificatiosn to be plugged into the north american electric grid. Any help would be appreciated (even better if it has 2-4 SFP+ 10 gig ports on it)

Can I use two different drives?
I am building a NAS in RAID 1 (Mirror) mode. Should I buy 2 of the same drive from the same manufacturer? or does it not matter so much?

Longhorn overkill for RAID ?
Hello selfhosted ! Continuing my journey of setup up my home k3s cluster. I’ve been asking myself if Longhorn might be overkill for my home cluster,here’s what i did: 3 machines running k3s each. One of them has a storage in Raid 5 and I dont want to use any storage from the other two. Thing is, i had to configure replicas to 1 in longhorn for my pv to be green. Hence my question, since data is already replicated in the array, shouldn’t I just use a NFS storage class instead? Thanks !

Any way to edit a file over internet?
I would like a program or website to connect to a computer and be able to edit a file there. Say I have a server. Call it Say I have a file. Call it /data/editme.txt I want either a simple link I can bookmark to edit this file, or to a note app (such as Joplin or Obsidian) and also be able to edit this file. I tried using Syncthing, however I would rather not have to sync the file from one location to another. This file has no need to be stored in multiple locations. Anything that'll solve this for me?

Should i use Cloudflare?
I recently got a Synology NAS and I am trying to setup Emby. I wanna host a media server however, I wanna be able to access the emby location from anywhere and let say my mom access it. Just I wanna keep it secure. Should I use cloudflare?

Anyone else using Mac minis as VM hosts for self hosting? My Friendica server is a Linux VM on a Mac Mini in my living room. The VM is bound to a VLAN tagged network interface so it’s completely firew
Anyone else using Mac minis as VM hosts for self hosting? My Friendica server is a Linux VM on a Mac Mini in my living room. The VM is bound to a VLAN tagged network interface so it’s completely firewalled off from the rest of my network. Also got a second Linux VM on the same box for hosting local stuff on my main VLAN (HomeBridge/etc). I feel like they’re really nice platforms for this, if not the cheapest. Cheaper than one might think though; I specced up an equivalent NUC and there wasn’t a lot of difference in price, and the M2 is really fast.

How should I secure my data on Nextcloud against physical attackers?
I feel super dumb right now. I always thought, that all user data (/home/) are decently safe against physical access, as long as my user and root password is strong enough. If I just plug in the hard drive, nobody except the Super User has access to the data on it. Well, the guys on the other community [(Link)]( have shown me how wrong I've been. All of my devices are securely encrypted. Well, all of them, except the most important one: my server, where all pictures, documents and other private stuff is stored. Now, I'm afraid as hell that this will go wrong in the future. Imagine a vengeful ex girlfriend, a police raid, whatever. It's just dumb from my side to secure everything except the one thing that would need it the most. I've already done my homework, and encryption doesn't seem like a highly important topic in the selfhosting community, or on many servers else. At least that's what I've got the feeling. The most common argument I hear is "nobody will get physical access anyway, so I don't care". --- ## Threat model and security measures My threat model: not high. I don't do any illegal stuff and don't have any enemies. Still, I want everything at least *somewhat* secure. If it only serves the purpose to annoy the intruder it's already enough. The only thing that has online access is my Nextcloud (AIO from Docker), and that is already well secured against hacking attacks (password, 2FA, brute force protection, etc.). It's also the only thing that is worth securing in my eyes. --- ## Options for encryption ### LUKS2 full disk I would need to factory reset the whole server for that, which would be ... highly inconvenient for me. It took me quite a long time to get everything working, and I don't wanna loose my configuration. Also, how should I access the device when I don't see anything? Is there a workaround or something when I want to reboot without a monitor and keyboard? ### Only encrypt the home folder Same problem as with FDE ### Nextcloud server side encryption That one isn't recommended from what I've read. It causes compatibility issues and an extreme hit on performance according to forums. Is this still correct? ### Cryptomator (?) Encrypting and decrypting with every up- and download sounds quite annoying. Wouldn't be my prefered method tbh. --- What is your opinion on that topic? What would you recommend me? Please remember, that I'm not that experienced as much, so please be patient with me 😬

VPS for Wireguard that’s not blocked everywhere
Yes I know I'm defeating the purpose of a VPN by using a static IP that's solely attached to me, that's not why I'm using my own. The issue I'm having is that a good number of sites see these IPs and block or captcha them. My current one is not on any lists and I still have it caught for some sites like Etsy or Lowe's even. I've been reading that an AWS lightsale instance might work, is this the only option or is it going to have blocks by cloudflare as well.

XMPP Server?
I'm looking to try self-hosting an XMPP server for my family to use as a secure communication platform. I realize that end2end encryption with XMPP doesn't seem as strong as something like Matrix but my self-hosted Matrix server has been very unreliable. I'm looking for recommendations and resources. I'v considered running Prosody and Openfire but both of them look like a pretty involved installation process with plenty of room to fuck up. Does anyone know of something similar to matrix-ansible-install for an XMPP server? Should I be looking at something besides Prosody or Openfire? Please, no YouTube tutorials. I prefer written instructions.

Port Forwarding Alternative?
Edit: Big thanks to everybody who shared their advice! :) I'm very pleasantly surprised and will definitely explore all the options you guys provided, such as getting an additional router or configuring Tailscale. Again, big thanks to everyone! --- Hi all, I've recently moved and now my ISP doesn't allow port forwarding for wired connections (wifi only), and my landlord does not allow changing ISPs. Now my home server is practically useless which makes me very sad. Is there any easy way to still access device ports without port forwarding or buying a wifi card/dongle is my safest bet?

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Self-hosted forms builder?
I'm looking for a self-hosted forms builder. Something like Google Forms, Zoho Forms, or maybe Formspree. Any suggestions? Thanks, y'all!

Enterprise SSD?
Hey folks, I'm at my wits end. I've been screwing with proxmox for years now, but I'm at a tipping point. I've just used consumer SSDs in it to run my VMs off of - but I just realized after a dozen or so crashes over the last week that I think the SSDs are the culprit. (Really, _really_ terrible write speeds leading to kernel crashes I believe). I've never gotten an enterprise SSD, if that's even what I need. Any recommendations? New? Used? Brands? Appreciate it

Do you configure your servarr docker containers from one docker-compose file, or individual ones?
I followed trash guides to set everything up blindly and my set up is working well. But, I feel like having jellyfin in the same docker compose as my "arr" services isn't good. So, I'd be curious to see if I should split things up. I am even wondering if i should let portainer manage everything.

Self hosted AI to train on an existing database
I have a SQL database, and a schema document that goes with it, is there any kind of AI I can self host and train it on this data? The goal would be to ask it simple questions like “from which table in [dbname] can I find a list of products I’ve sold in the last x days” Would be even better if I could ask it to write some queries to find exactly what I’m after. What kind of hardware would I need to run something like this, if it exists?

Best SBC for servarr and jellyfin?
I have sonarr, radarr, prowlarr, jellyfin and qbittorrent-nox running on my computer. I want to move it to an sbc so it can run 24h/day and draw less power. All my media are on a M.2 drive so it's important to have a way to somehow connect it to that sbc. Fyi I also intend to run AdGuard What sbc do you recommend for such a setup? Do I have to wait for RPi 5 or are there better alternatives? Of course the best value for money

Setup a DNS server on a dynamic public ip
Hello! I want to set up a pi-hole on my home and connect from my parent's. Both setups have a dynamic IP assigned by my isp and are different networks. I have a couple of questions: 1) I can get a domain that updates automatically. But how would I resolve it on the client side? 2) Is there any way to authenticate on the server? By Mac maybe? That can be spoofed right? Edit: my bad, thanks for correcting me, Mac is another layer completely 3) Can setting up a VPN solve both (1) and (2)? 4) Is there any other way? Thanks!

OwnCloud and NGinx = untrusted domain = sadface
I'm running OwnCloud in Docker and have setup NGinx as a reverse proxy. This works perfectly for all my other services, but OwnCloud keeps throwing the untrusted domain error. I've edited the config.php file to add my but no dice. Does anybody know what I need to do?

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